2 (73) 2016

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ECONOMICS

Volkonsky V.A. Society and Economy in the XXI Century – an Optimistic Version of the Story »»

The article contains qualitative hypothetical picture of the development of those tendencies that have emerged in the last decades of the last and present centuries and will continue in the future. This qualitative picture is necessary for elaborating the ideology and wording of the tasks that confront a society and the state. The main dangers that threaten the world, a new world war and the development of misanthropic ideologies. In the twenty-first century, humanity can to avoid them. And then the most important process of history will be the convergence and mutual enrichment of ideologies, these seemed irreconcilable in the twentieth century.
Keywords: world war, Facism, convergence, mutual enrichment of ideologies, autarchy, state planning, «new proletariat».

Bodrunov S.D. Russia in the Eurasian Space: Production, Science and Education as Progress Drivers »»

The article is devoted to upgrading of the Russian economy on the basis of new industrialization. Reveals a system of developing new industrial principles of the production organization that are adequate to the 21st century economy. The progress of such а hi-tech production can be carried out alongside a revival of science, education and culture. Such а new industrial economy will become the progress driver for Russia and may significantly promote the Eurasian integration.
Keywords: new industrialization, upgrading the Russian economy, production, science, education, culture, Eurasian integration.

Gusev A.A. Transition to the Policy of «Green» Economic Growth »»

Substantiated the fundamental tool of «green» growth – the ecology-friendly greening of economic restructuring. The system of basic, complementary and related indicators of the ecology-friendly economic «green» growth. The features of the formation of such indicators provided. Given an analysis of the negative phenomena that affect the «green» growth in Russia. The ways to overcome them, including the experience of foreign countries.
Keywords: «green» growth, tools, indicators, environmental protection, ecological and economic assessment, experience of foreign countries.

Chulok S.B. On Surplus Value as the Main Factor of Social Development »»

The article demonstrates that the surplus value is the means of capital accumulation but not the result of labour exploitation. The two problems: the problem of surplus value production and that of surplus value allocation are also separated. It is shown as well that the amount of surplus value does not depend on who it is allocated to, what way and what amount. The possibility of getting it and its amount depend on the technology advance and the organization of production process, while the latter depends on the advance of the production forces. Only the allocation of surplus value can be viewed from some class perspective but not the surplus value per se. The author proposes the surplus value and the norm of capital accumulation to be used as the major macroeconomic indices, and provides the formulae for calculating surplus value and norm of capital accumulation in micro-and macroscales.
Keywords: surplus produce, value, cost, surplus value, capital, norm of capital accumulation, reproduction, gross domestic product, material & value balance.

Savilov S.I. Accounting of Interval Uncertainty in the Investment Projects Evaluation in Russian Non-Stationary Economy: Assumptions and Methods »»

Implementation of investment projects is necessary for stable growth of the Russian economy. Investment projects evaluating takes place before projects implementation, when values of parameters and scenarios are unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the uncertainty and risks. Objective of this work are identifying problems of actual methods of interval uncertainty accounting in non-stationary economy of Russia, and development alternative method. In the article shown, that common method based on Hurwicz criterion has disadvantages. Then obtained a new method of evaluation, based on the comments to the justification Hurwicz criterion. New method is named modified Gibbs–Jaynes criterion Using this method can improve quality and validity of investment decisions in non-stationary economy, which are required of sustainable development of Russian economy.
Keywords: interval uncertainty, Hurwitz criterion, Gibbs–Jaynes criterion, the evaluation of investment projects, non-stationary economy.

ECONOMICAL POLICY AND ECONOMICAL PRACTICE

Gurkov I.B., Kossov V.V., Arshavski A.Yu., Saidov Z.B. Russian Manufacturing Subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations: Preliminary Results of Development and Future Perspectives »»

The authors trace the development of Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of multinational corporations. The major attention is devoted to 2012–2015 – the authors show the geography of new plants, patterns of their location, industry distribution and corporate parents. The authors also analyze adaptation strategies of Russian enterprises of multinational corporations undertaken in 2015 and make a forecast for the near future.
Keywords: multinational corporations, industrial enterprises, Russia, subsidiaries.

Nanavyan A.M. Structure of Population by Level of Education and Saturate of Branches of Economy by Personnel »»

The author investigates the problem of the number of experts in the Russian economy. It analyzed the professional qualification structure of employees, as well as the unemployed and the economically inactive population by level of education, based on the calculation of personnel saturation (proportion of persons with the appropriate level of education for 1000 people).
Keywords: employment, economically active population, economically inactive population, level of education, personnel saturation.

Nikolaeva E.V., Pletnev D.A. Internal Economy Factors of Business Success of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Federal Districts in Russia »»

The authors present result of the internal factors of success for small and medium-sized business in Russia. Particular attention is paid to the study of financial factors as the most significant in the formation business performance indicators. Using the financial statements the authors defines an impact of various financial indicators of enterprises economic activity in the business success rates. Analysis of the small and medium business is carried for federal districts of the Russian Federation. Key internal financial factors determining the success of small and medium – sized businesses are identified. Recommendations for improving financial and economic activity of enterprises has been proposed on the basis of the factors.
Keywords: success, internal factors of success, small and medium businesses, financial analysis.

Berezinets I.V., Ilina Yu.B., Smirnov M.V. Boards of Directors in Russian State-Owned Companies »»

The article is devoted to the issue of board of directors that is one of the key corporate governance mechanisms. The authors discuss the basic functions of the board of directors and perspectives of their implementation in joint stock companies with different state ownership stake. The article presents the results of the study of board of directors’ characteristics on the sample of more than 700 Russian joint-stock companies with state ownership stake. The time period of analysis is 2009–2012, the period when there were the substantial changes in corporate governance in joint-stock companies with state participation.
Keywords: corporate governance, board of directors, state-owned companies

Okulov V.L., Savenkov P.G. Empirical Research of Cash Currency Buy and Sell Rates in Russia »»

This article is devoted to the empirical analysis of cash currency buy-and sell-rates (dollars, euros) by Russian commercial banks. The analysis showed that the spreads between sell rate and buy rate essentially depend on the situation on the foreign exchange market. Under a relative stability of exchange rates the spreads remain unchanged and determined by the costs of cash currency transactions. Under the sharp exchange rate fluctuations the relative spreads are directly proportional to the day-to-day volatility of the exchange rate. We analyze the buy and sell rates in 32 banks. The observed spreads are compared with calculated ones computed under the hypothesis of information asymmetry of market participants.
Keywords: market microstructure; cash currency market; exchange rate volatility; bid– ask spread; bank margin.

Kobylko A.A. Modern Telecommunication Operators: a Study from the Point of View of the System Economic Theory »»

The article considers the organization of telecommunications as an economic system through the analysis of activity and prospects for further development of the Russian telecommunications market being one of rapidly developing industries. Telecommunication operators are analyzed from the perspective of the theory of economic systems, which is actively developing at present. The activity of the telecommunication operator is considered from the perspective of its compliance with four types of social and economic systems, i.e. project, process, environmental, and object. The findings show that at the present stage of development, the telecommunication operator does not relate to the environmental economic system. It combines the features of all the four types of economic systems, thus acting as a polysystem. The main form of the operator’s functioning is a hybrid business model (hybrid mobile network operator), when services are rendered to a subscriber by both the Telecom operator and its competitor. Considering an operator as a polysystem, it is necessary to adjust theoretical recommendations, given the specifics of its activity, including the strategic planning area.
Keywords: telecommunications, hybrid mobile network operator, socioeconomic system, polysystem, communications service provider.

HISTORY OF ECONOMICS

Fredman A.A. Аbout the role of A.N. Kosygin and CEMI of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the Development of a Diamond Industry of the USSR »»

This paper is devoted to an unknown role of A.N. Kosygin and CEMI of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the development of diamond industry of the USSR. This industry was built in the top secret regime, which was explained by the strategic role of the diamonds as a source of foreign currency needed by the Soviet Union. The paper tells about the research innovations of CEMI scientists in this field, the attitude of A.N. Kosygin who was supervising the raw diamond industry in the USSR and who was responsible for resolving a range of key research issues and implementation of the results of this work – which was market-based by its ideas and extremely important by its results. The author – at that time the Head of the diamond research group at CEMI – describes the meetings and discussions with A.N. Kosygin, his attitude to the USSR Academy of Sciences, attention to the researchers and the amazing story which allows comparing the present and the past of the life of the Academy of Sciences.
Keywords: USSR Academy of Sciences, raw diamond, diamond industry of USSR, A.N. Kosygin, diamond, positioning the diamonds within raw diamonds, embedding raw diamond in brilliant, «De Beers», mathematics, world diamond market, production optimization, CEMI USSR AS, Yakutiya.

SCIENCE LIFE CHRONICLE

Sorokozherdev V.V., Konstantinidi H.A., Sobolev E.V. Regional Aspects of the Implementation of Russia’s Modernization Strategy in the Context of Current Market Reforms

Karpinskaya V.A. On the Way to a Multi-Level Theory of Economics

CONFERENCES, SYMPOSIUMS, SEMINARS, COMPETITIONS

Russian Economic Congress

BOOKSHELF

Kossov V.V. 1300 pages ... about the Assessment of the Investment (Review of the Book by P.L. Vilensky, V.N. Livshits, S.A. Smolyak «Evaluating the Effectiveness of Investment Projects: Theory and Practice»)

JUBILEES

Georgy B. Kleiner – 70

Aleksandr A. Frenkel – 80

ОБ АВТОРАХ »»

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